This week on the CTL Blog, we are sharing our guide to Harvard Referencing and writing a Bibliography - these are two areas that often cause the most problem when writing.
Some of you may be beginning an assignment, whether that be for a counselling certificate, or another taught programme and Harvard Referencing can often be a real stickler.
We decided to break it down in this post so that you understand how to use it when you're building your criteria based assignment.
The Harvard Style
The Harvard style is a type of author-date style.
Generally, when using the Harvard style in your assignment it requires only the name of the author (or authors) and the year of publication (with no punctuation between the two items).
Scholtz (1990) has argued that…..
if two or more authors have written the book, it is usual to say 'et al' and start with the first author's name.
Dryden et al (1993)
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Referencing a Quotation:
You use quotations when you want to illustrate concepts, add flavour to you work and support your arguments.
Whenever you directly copy the words of another author (quoting) or put their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing) you must acknowledge that you have done so, or you are plagiarising their work.
When quoting exactly from the book, it is best to place the reference at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation).
….as one writer put it “the darkest days were still ahead” (Weston 1988, p.45).
(again, only add the page number if you are stating the exact text.)
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The difference between a Bibliography and a Reference List
A bibliography at the end of an assignment shows the books you have read in preparation and research. You have not cited them in the text, but they have helped you prepare.
At CTL, we only require a Reference List of the books, journal articles and websites that you have referenced within your assignment.
Writing a Reference list at the end.
A reference list is always presented in alphabetical order with the surname first.
Author Surname , Author Initials (Year of Publication) Title, Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Burns, R. J. (1998) The Way to Reference, 2nd Edition. Dublin: Cite Publishing.
The following is a sample Harvard style reference:
MacMillan, M. and Clark, D. (1998) Learning and Writing in Counselling. London: Sage Publications.
Marshall, L. and Rowland, F. (1993) A Guide to Learning Independently, 2nd Edition. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite Them Right, 8th Edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rosen, L. J. and Behrens, L. (1994) The Allyn & Bacon Handbook, 2nd Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
We hope that has been helpful for you this week.
Please let us know if there are any further topics you wish us to cover.
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It's not too early to be applying for the Fast Track Level 3 Certificate in Counselling Skills, which starts on Sunday January 17th 2016. 23 weeks, every Sunday from 10am - 3.30pm Cost: £975 (inclusive of Residential). Read more about the course here and send an email here to request more information.
We also have a new Basic Counselling Skills beginning on January 13th, every Wednesday Evening: 6.15 - 9.15pm for 10 weeks. Cost: £125 (£100 concessions). Get in touch here if you'd like to apply.